Mr Lim is a consultant vascular surgeon and honorary clinical lecturer at the Royal Free London. He is an honorary consultant at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children.

He qualified from Barts and the London Medical School, and obtained his PhD from Imperial College London. He completed higher general and vascular surgical training in London. He undertook a senior clinical fellowship in the management of complex venous diseases at St Thomas’ Hospital.

Mr Lim has subspecialist interest in the management of complex venous diseases and vascular malformations. His other clinical expertise includes the management of peripheral arterial diseases, diabetic foot, carotid stenosis, aortic aneurysms, lymphoedema and thoracic outlet syndrome. He is one of few vascular surgeons in the country with interest in vascular surgery in children.

Mr Lim’s main research interests focus on translational and clinical studies on the management of complex venous diseases and vascular malformations.



Cantonese and Malay

Peer-reviewed articles
• Lim CS, Halliday C, Harvey V, Quintana B, Thulasidasan N, Black SA. A centralised complex venous service model in a National Health Service hospital. Br J Healthcare Management 2019 In press
• Black S, Alvi S, Baker S, Beckett S, Breen K, Burfitt N, Coles S, Davies A, Davies N, Diwakar P , Drebes A, Fortin K, Gohel M, Hague J, Hammond C, Haslam L, Jones R, Kearney T, Lehmann E, Lenton J, Low D, Metcalfe J, Moore H, Odedra B, Prabhudesai S, Quigley S, Ratnam L, Richards T, Saha P, Schnatterbeck P, Scurr J, Shaikh U, Shaikh S, Shawyer S, Tippett R, Vrebac S, Ward R, Watts C, Wigham A, Willis A, Woodward N, Lim CS. Management of Acute and Chronic Iliofemoral Venous Outflow Obstruction: A Multidisciplinary Team Consensus. Int Angio 2019 In press
• Lim CS, Waseem S, El-Sayed T, Budge J, Quintana B, Thulasidasan N, Karunanithy N, Black SA. Patient radiation exposure for endovascular deep venous interventions. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 In press
• Balanescu C, Brar R, Evans N, Tsui J, Lindsey B, Papadopoulou A, Brookes J, Lim CS, Hamilton G. Successful repair of a vasculopathic aneurysmal brachial artery in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis. Ann Vasc Surg 2019 In press
• Epstein DM, Gohel MS, Heatley F, Liu X, Bradbury A, Bulbulia R, Cullum N, Nyamekye I, Poskitt KR, Renton S, Warwick J, Davies AH; EVRA trial investigators. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized clinical trial of early versus deferred endovenous ablation of superficial venous reflux in patients with venous ulceration. Br J Surg 2019;106(5):555-562
• Lim CS, Baruah M, Bahia SS. Diagnosis and management of venous leg ulcers. BMJ 2018;362:326-9
• Gohel MS, Heatley F, Liu X, Bradbury A, Bulbulia R, Cullum N, Epstein DM, Nyamekye I, Poskitt KR, Renton S, Warwick J, Davies AH; EVRA Trial Investigators. A Randomized Trial of Early Endovenous Ablation in Venous Ulceration. N Engl J Med 2018;378(22):2105-2114
• Kankam HKN, Lim CS, Fiorentino F, Davies AH, Gohel MS. A summation analysis of compliance and complications of compression hosiery for patients with chronic venous disease or post-thrombotic syndrome. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2018;55(3):406-416
• Lim CS, Dhutia A, Riga C, Dharmadasa A, Gibbs RGJ, Hamady MS. Two-vessel branched stent graft for severely angulated aortic arch aneurysm in a Jehovah’s Witness. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2018;52(2):154-158
• Vosicka K, Qureshi M, Shapiro S, Lim CS, Davies AH. Post Thrombotic Syndrome following Deep Vein Thrombosis in Paediatric Patients. Phlebology 2018;33(3)185-194
• Lim CS, Shalhoub J, Davies AH. Deep venous procedures performed in the National Health Service in England between 2005 and 2015. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2017;54(4):487-494
• Cohen A, Lim CS, Davies AH. Venous thromboembolism in gynecological malignancy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2017;27(9):1970-1978
• Skervin A, Lim CS, Sritharan K. Improving patient compliance with post EVAR surveillance may prevent late rupture. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2017;51(7):522-526
• Ravikumar R, Lim CS, Davies AH. The role of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in cancer patients. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017;906:137-148
• Busuttil A, Lim CS, Davies AH. Post thrombotic syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol 2017;906:363-375
• Moon KH, Dharmarajah B, Bootun R, Lim CS, Lane T, Moore HM, Sritharan K, Davies AH. Comparison of microbubble presence in the right heart during mechanochemical and radiofrequency ablation for varicose veins. Phlebology 2017;32(6):425-436
• Lane T, Bootun R, Dharmarajah B, Lim CS, Najem M, Renton S, Sritharan K, Davies AH. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing radiofrequency and mechanical occlusion chemically assisted ablation of varicose veins – Final results of the Venefit versus Clarivein for varicose veins trial. Phlebology 2016;32(2):89-98
• Lim CS, Naji, Y, Hussain ST, Pleban E, Wiszniewski A, Onida S, Mosquera Arochena NJ, Szopinski P. Modified sandwich-graft technique employing Aorfix™ and Viabahn® stent-grafts to preserve hypogastric flow in cases of complex aortoiliac and isolated common iliac artery aneurysms including internal iliac artery ostium. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2016;51(3):364-70
• Bootun R, Lane T, Dharmarajah B, Lim CS, Najem M, Renton S, Sritharan K, Davies AH. Intra-procedural pain score in a randomised controlled trial comparing mechanochemical ablation to radiofrequency ablation: the multicentre Venefit™ versus ClariVein® for varicose veins (VVCVV) trial. Phlebology 2016;31(1):61-5
• Qureshi MI, Gohel M, Wing L, MacDonald A, Lim CS, Ellis M, Franklin IJ, Davies AH. A study to evaluate patterns of superficial venous reflux in patients with primary chronic venous disease. Phlebology 2015;30(7);455-61
• Newman J, Calley JC, Lim CS, Das S. Successful endovascular treatment of a duodenal obstruction caused by a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. Ann Vasc Surg 2015;29(6):1322e1-4
• Lim CS, Davies AH. Graduated compression stockings. CMAJ 2014;186(10):E391-8
• Lim CT, Gibbs V, Lim CS. Invasive medical procedure skills amongst foundation year doctors – a questionnaire study JRSM Open 2014; 5(5):2054270414527934
• Lim CS, Kiriakidis S, Sandison A, Paleolog EM, Davies AH. Hypoxia-inducible factor pathway and diseases of the vascular wall. J Vasc Surg 2013;58(1):219-30
• Lim CS, Kiriakidis S, Paleolog EM, Davies AH. Cell Death Pattern of a Varicose Vein Organ Culture Model. Vascular 2013;21(3):129-136
• Brake M, Lim CS, Shepherd AC, Shalhoub J, Davies AH. Pathogenesis and aetiology of recurrent varicose veins. J Vasc Surg 2013;57(3):860-8
• Marjot T, Lim CS, Spannagl E, ST Hussain. Coronary stent embolization to peroneal artery. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2013;47(5):400-1
• Lim CS, Nott DM. Unsuspected iatrogenic vertebral artery cannulation with a dialysis catheter. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2013;47(2):163-4
• Lim CS, Kiriakidis S, Paleolog EM, Davies AH. The effects of doxycycline and micronized purified flavonoid fraction on human vein wall remodelling are not hypoxia-inducible factor pathway dependent. J Vasc Surg 2012;56(4):1069-77
• Anwar MA, Shalhoub J, Vorkas PA, Lim CS, Want EJ, Nicholson JK, Holmes E, Davies AH. In-vitro identification of distinctive metabolic signatures of intact varicose vein tissue via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2012;44(4):442-50
• Anwar MA, Georgiadis KA, Shalhoub J, Lim CS, Gohel MS, Davies AH. A review of familial, genetic and congenital aspects of primary varicose vein disease. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 2012;5(4):460-6
• Anwar MA, Shalhoub J, Lim CS, Gohel MS, Davies AH. The effect of pressure-induced mechanical stretch on vascular wall differential genes expression. J Vasc Res 2012;49(6):463-478
• Lim CS, Kiriakidis S, Paleolog EM, Davies AH. Increased activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in varicose veins. J Vasc Surg 2012;55(5):1427-1439
• Lim CT, Dunlop M, Lim CS. Intravenous fluid prescribing practices by foundation year one doctors – a questionnaire study. J R Soc Med Sh Rep 2012;3:64
• Manga F, Lim CS, Mangena L, Guest M. Acute pancreatitis in peritoneal dialysis- a case report with literature review. Eur J Gastrol Hepatol 2012;24(1):95-101
• Weston PS, Lim CS, Shalhoub J, Davies AH. Metastatic bladder transitional cell carcinoma presenting as a vascularised cutaneous right arm lesion. Int J Clin Oncol 2012;17(3):286-9
• Lim CS, Qiao X, Reslan OM, Xia Y, Raffetto JD, Paleolog E, Davies AH, Khalil RA. Prolonged mechanical stretch is associated with upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factors and reduced contraction in rat inferior vena cava. J Vasc Surg 2011;53(3):764-773
• Shepherd AC, Gohel MS, Lim CS, Davies AH. A study to compare disease-specific quality of life with clinical anatomical and hemodynamic assessments in patients with varicose veins. J Vasc Surg 2011;53(2):374-382
• Lim CS, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, E Paleolog, Davies AH. Venous hypoxia: a poorly studied etiological factor of varicose veins. J Vasc Res 2011;48(3):185-194
• Kasivisvanathan V, Shalhoub J, Lim CS, Shepherd AC, Thapar A, Davies AH. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in arterial disease: a putative therapeutic target. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2011;9(3):333-49
• Lim CS, Brzeski M, Yapanis M. A challenging case of bilateral iliopsoas abscess. Surg Infections (Larchmt) 2011;12(1):69-72
• Lim CS, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, Davies AH. Secondary care treatment of patients with varicose veins in NHS England – at least how it appeared on a National Health Service website. Phlebology 2010;25(4):184-189.
• Lim CS, Miles J, Peckham TJ. Current practice of obtaining informed consent for local steroid injection among the shoulder and elbow surgeons in United Kingdom. Scott Med J 2010;55(3):31-3
• Shepherd AC, Gohel MS, Lim CS, Hamish M, Davies AH. Pain following 980-nm endovenous laser ablation and segmental radiofrequency ablation for varicose veins: a prospective observational study. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010;44(3):212-6
• Gandhi A, Froghi F, Shepherd AC, Shalhoub J, Lim CS, Gohel MS, Davies AH. A study of patient satisfaction following endothermal ablation for varicose veins. Vasc Endovasc Surg 2010;44(4):274-8.
• Shepherd AC, Gohel MS, Lim CS, Davies AH. The treatment of varicose veins: an investigation of patient preferences and expectations. Phlebology 2010;25(2):54-65
• Lim CS, Shalhoub J, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, Davies AH. Matrix metalloproteinases in vascular disease – a potential therapeutic target? Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2010;8(1):75-85
• Shepherd AC, Gohel MS, Hamish M, Lim CS, Davies AH. Endovenous treatments for varicose veins – over-taking or over-rated? Phlebology 2010;25(1):38-43
• Lim CS, Davies AH. Pathogenesis of primary varicose veins. Br J Surg 2009;96(11):1231-1242
• Lim CS, Gohel MS, Shepherd AC, Davies AH. Iliac artery compression in cyclists: mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009;38(2):180-6.
• Lim CS, McGeever L, Grey JH, Krishna A, Jabbar AA, Hendry WS. How important is to investigate the whole of the colon after the initial assessment at a rapid access colorectal clinic? Int J Colorectal Dis 2009;24(11):1341-5.
• Lim CS, Alexandre-Sefre F, Allam M, Singh N, Chin Aleong J, Al-Rawi H, Jacobs IJ. Clinical value of immunohistochemically detected lymphovascular space invasion in early stage cervical carcinoma. Ann of Surg Oncol 2008;15(9):2581-2588.
• Lim CS, Tibrewal S, Mok WLJ. A case of penile and scrotal strangulation by a metal ring. Scott Med J 2007;52(1):60
• Lim CS, Singh Ranger G, Tibrewal S, Jani B, Jeddy TA and Lafferty K. Sclerosing mesenteritis presenting with small bowel obstruction and subsequent retroperitoneal fibrosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 18(12): 1285-7
• Cohen AL, Lim CS, Davies AH. Is there a role yet for new direct oral anticoagulants in cancer patients? Phlebology 2016;31(3):157-9
• Lim CS, Gohel MS, Davies AH. Is there still a role for basic science research in venous disease? Phlebology 2008;23:147–148
Medical education
• Lim CT, Yap A, Lim CS. Approaching your first clinical years. Student BMJ 2008;16:112-113
• Lim CS, Hussain ST; Higher Order Thinking Assessment Questions and Answers for the Clinical Practice (Module 3) component of the Postgraduate Diploma in Minor Surgery; Middlesex University, London & Rila Institute of Health Sciences, London (2013).
• Lim CS, Baruah M, Bahia SS, CME Learning Module: Diagnosis and Management of Venous Leg Ulcer. BMJ Learning 2018
Book chapters
• Lim CS, Hamish M, Davies AH. Staged or combined management is preferable in patients with coronary artery disease and AAA? Has the application of endovascular treatment influenced the clinical practice? 3rd Vascular Symposium; 2008
• Qureshi MI, Lim CS, Davies AH. The descending theory of venous incompetence. Ed Wittens, C. Evidence in Best Practice Venous Procedures. Edizioni Minerva Medica Turin 2010 161-168
• Lim CS, Lattimer CR, Davies AH. Vena Cava Filters (Chapter 24). Clinical Handbook of Management of Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy. Published 1 July 2014; ISBN-13: 978-93-83988-01-3, Editors: Rao GHR, Kalodiki E, Leong WA, Fareed J; Publisher: Kontentworx, KWX Communications Pvt. Ltd. 12/42, GF, Sunder Vihar, Outer Ring Road, Paschim Vihar, New Delhi, 110087, INDIA
• Lim CS, Onida S, Davies AH. Peripheral Vascular Disease in Older Adults: Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations. Oxford Textbook of Geriatric Medicine. Editors: Jean-Pierre Michel, B. Lynn Beattie, Finbarr C. Martin, and Jeremy Walston, Oxford University Press
• Lim CS, Park KGM. Impact of anastomotic leakage on oncological outcome after rectal cancer resection (Br J Surg 2007; 94: 1548-1554). Br J Surg 2008;95(5):665

Research interests include translational and clinical research in vascular surgery particularly in venous and vascular malformations.